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平等和正义

By admin

几个月前,我在《自由是国民之富》的文中谈到,要评价一个政府,应该首先看在国民的自由指数,而不是他们的幸福指数。理由很简单,幸福感是个主观的概念,仁者见仁,智者见智。当你把幸福指数为主导思想来制定政策时,往往会陷入功利主义和集体主义的陷阱。造成政府过分强调“社会公正”,却忘了其最应该恪守宪法中保障个体基本权利的原则,忘了维持制度(或者规则)的平等性和公正性。

这就好比下棋,一旦规则定好了。无论赛程中,棋局发生了什么样的变化,我们都不能更改赛棋规则。规则的公正性,规则的平等性,比结果,比谁胜谁负更为重要。

说到平等和正义,新浪一位名为肉便器的博友在微博上贴了这样一张幔画。

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左图名为“平等”。三位场外观众都想看球,左边的个子高,整个球场一览无余,中间的女生刚刚好,最可怜是右边的小朋友,即使站在箱子上,也无济于事,什么都看不到。右图名为“正义”。高个儿脚下的箱子,被垫在了小朋友的脚下。这回,无论个高个矮,三人都可以看球了。

漫画作者要表达的意图明显。也就是即使起点平等(或规则)平等,弱者仍然享受不到幸福,只有建立一种制度,可以将强者的过剩的资源分给弱者,人人有机会的社会才是正义的。这幅图,让我想起美国总统奥巴马常说的,Fair Chance 和Fair Shot。不可否认,我们都希望社会象右图一样,皆大欢喜。谁不想生活在一个人人有机会,人人都幸福的世界里?

这张漫画贴出之后,立刻引发了网上热议。上万多人转发,几千多人回复。有的留言写道:“真好,社会就应该这样!”有的则留言:“平等并不等于正义,有了正义不一定有平等。”网友刘平调侃道“没箱子挪时就锯腿,谁也别看,这就叫公平、正义”,二逼瓦西里则说,“自由主义者首先关心的是:这几个箱子是谁的?挪给那侏儒用,是自愿的还是被迫的?谁主张挪的?”。

网友意见两极化。无论支持和反对,可以肯定一点,箱子不会自己跑到小朋友的脚下,需要人有所作为。一种可能,高个儿把箱子让给了小朋友;另一种可能,来了一位有权威的正义先生,把箱子硬搬到了小朋友的脚下。前者,是高个儿自愿的行为无可厚非,而后者是强制,违背了高个儿的主观意愿。

漫画作者好像在暗示,人人机会均等的制度是正义的。但要实现机会均等,同时又不损害任何个体的利益,完全是没有可能的。人的财富,资质,机会,天生不同。有出生显贵的,可以子承父业不需要很努力,有出生贫寒的不得不由零开始,付出更多,貌美如花的人,人见人爱,其貌不扬的人不被待见,聪明绝顶的人不容易犯错,愚蠢至极的人常常吃亏,这些都是常识。命运是不公平的,机会更无法平等。要人人起点公平,机会均等,只能通过政府的强制手段。

这就是政府强调的社会保障。从上个世纪以来,西方国家在福利和保障制度上不断地迈进,试图让穷人衣食无忧,享受免费医疗,免费教育,公租房和经适房等等。表面上,皆大欢喜,但实质上,社会为此付出了更大的代价。

还在继续恶化的欧债危机,让福利社会制度无法在欧洲持续,经济不好,社会动荡。美国更糟,国债到了上限16万亿,债务几乎和生产总值持平。而且,联邦未来要支付老百姓的义务(Unfunded Liabilities)还差122万亿。要知道,美国所有资产加起来(大小企业资产,家庭资产)才93万多亿,而年总产值16万亿。请问,政府这么大的承诺,将来如何兑现得了?((Unfunded Liabilities 包括社保,医保等等)。

说到福利,前不久听到这样的一个故事。在英国,一位叫约翰沃克的,47岁的男子靠着政府的福利,不仅不用工作,还先后娶了4 个老婆,生了17个孩子!他不仅有住房,而且住的是三层楼的洋房,还有庭院!政府不仅帮他养老婆孩子,还帮他养四个情人。为什么呢?因为在英国你只要肯生孩子,政府就给补贴,孩子越多补贴越多。有人计算,约翰沃克总共从政府那里领到的福利达250万英镑。

这样的寄生虫,美国也不少。比如加州女子苏尔曼,九年内生了14个孩子。光接生和医疗费,政府就报销了500万美元。医学评论员说,养这些多胞胎,健康和生活费用五年内就要花掉1000多万。而苏尔曼没老公,没工作,靠政府救济度日。

政府花了很多的钱,但钱哪里来?政府本身并不创造财富,只能分配财富。这些钱都来自辛苦工作的纳税人。要做到所有人的起点公平,绝不像漫画中挪箱子那样简单。不要说,我举的例子极端。美国在1965年开始建立起社保制度,40多年政府投了10多万亿,但穷困率几乎没有得到任何改善。奥巴马上台前信誓旦旦地要Fair Chance ,Fair Shot,但四年后领救济的穷人更多了。撒切尔夫人说得好,“社会主义的问题是,最终把别人的钱花光了”。社会化医疗,社会化教育,社会化住房,结果都一样。

我们在回到漫画本身,我想告诉作者,为何把思维局限在箱子上?我们应该把眼光放远一点,看看是什么阻挡我们的视线,不错,是前面的栅栏。阻挡我们走向幸福是政府的管制。在自由的世界,栅栏很低甚至没有。在自由的市场中,基本生活品会因为激烈的竞争而越来越价廉物美。价格的竞争,使得技术创新加快,东西越来越便宜。如今,我们能用手机通话,可以坐在家里看球赛看电影,可以上网了解世界。这些待遇,古代君王都无福享受。人应该积极进取,勤奋独立,用自己的劳动果实来换取自己的幸福,而不是躺在家里等天上掉馅饼,盼望别人帮你实现愿望。

别忘了,洛克菲勒那句话,“你想使一个人残废,只要给他一对拐杖”。

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